Weld Bead Width Measurement in a GMAW WAAM System by using Passive Vision

  • Marcus O. Couto Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Ramon R. Costa Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Antonio C. Leite University of Life Sciences
  • Fernando Lizarralde Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Arthur G. Rodrigues Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • João C. Payão Filho Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Keywords: Wire arc additive manufacturing, Passive vision, Image processing, Visual sensing, Bead width measurement, Single bead geometry, Metal additive manufacturing


The development and integration of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) systems is nowadays a topic of growing interest. Industries are starting to focus on deploying this technology due to its vast capability of producing different types of parts and creating new possibilities for engineering design. Measuring the process characteristics is crucial in a WAAM system, because it helps to ensure that the build up was done according as planned. In this work, it was developed a passive vision-based monitoring method to measure the metal bead width in a WAAM process. The deposition was carried out by using a carbon steel wire with GMAW process, a Motoman HP20 robot arm and a welding torch device. A Xiris XVC-1000 camera was used for visual inspection and mounted in a suitable configuration to minimize arc’s noise. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the bead deposition width in real time with a satisfactory accuracy using monocular cameras. Therefore, it is a feasible solution to be used in WAAM systems with the advantage of being relatively low-cost, as compared to other active vision equipment.