Evaluation of the CO2 Emissions and Energy Efficiency of the Train Intercidades Campinas-São Paulo with Fuel Cells and Batteries
This work presents a case study of the Train Intercidades project between Campinas and São Paulo, comparing, in the sense of increasing efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions, the supply of diesel generators, batteries and fuel cells. For this, a model of the track and the train to be analyzed was developed using HOMER Pro software, and energy simulations were carried out considering the combinations of energy sources mentioned above. It was verified that the use of batteries as an auxiliary source of energy made it possible to decrease the installed power and increase the overall efficiency in simulations with diesel generators. In relation to the replacement of diesel generators by fuel cells in different scenarios, an increase in global efficiency of about 10%, the complete elimination of carbon dioxide emissions at the point of use, and an increase in operating costs of more than 300% due to the consumption of hydrogen gas were achieved. However, this financial gap is expected to narrow with the development of fuel cell technology in the coming years, making this option more economically viable in the future.